Wednesday, June 17, 2009

Hebert Monument - Quebec City, Canada

The Monument to the left was erected to honor Louis Hebert first European settler dedicated 1918 on the 300 anniversary of his arrival in Quebec, 1617 four years before the Mayflower landing. It stands behind Notre-Dame de Quebec Basilica, next to Cote de La Montague Street.

Many of us can trace out genealogy to those hardy Puritans that came to America shores in 1623 to establish the first colony. Well Jim Cummings (my great grandfather) can boast that his mother Marie Dupuis 6th and a 7th great grandfather was Louis Hebert, who is considered to be the first European settler in Canada. The honor of being the colony's first seigneur belongs to Louis Hebert, a curious chain of events that brought him to the role of a yeoman in the St Lawrence valley. Hebert has left to posterity little or no information concerning his early life and his experience as a farmer. we must gather what we can from stray allusions to him in the general narratives of early colonial life. Hebert was Canada's first patron of husbandry. The greater portion of his adult years were passed with a spade in his hands. But he embodies a type, and a worthy type it is. Louis Hebert was a native of Paris, born in about 1575. He had an apothecary's shop there, but apparently was not making a very marked success of his business in 1604. he fell in with Biencourt de Poutrincourt, and was enlisted as a member of that voyageur's first expedition to Acadia. It was in these days the custom of ships to carry an apothecary or dispenser of health-giving herbs. His functions ran the whole gamut of medical practice from blood-letting to the dosing of sailors with concoctions of mysterious make to cure about everything. Hebert probably set out with no intention to remain in America; but he found Port Royal to his likeing, and there the historian Lescarbot soon found him not only sowing corn and planting vines, apparently taking great pleasure in the cultivation of the soil. All this in a colony which comprised of five persons, namely, two Jesuit fathers and their servant, Hebert, and one other.

In 1613 with serious dangers all about, and lack of support at home, Port Royal about to be destroyed, Hebert made his way back to France. The apothecary's shop was re-opened, the daily customers were no doubt regaled with stories of life among the wild aborigines of the west. But not for long. There was a trait of restlessness that would not go away, in 1616 the little shop again put up its shutters. Hebert had joined Champlain in the Brouage navigator's first voyage to the St Lawrence. This time the apothecary burned his bridges behind him, H├ębert sold his house and its garden in Paris and with Marie his wife and there three children, Anne, Guillemette and Guillaume start out, with them and all his worldly effects.
The trading company which was backing Champlain's enterprise promised that Hebert and his family should be paid a cash bonus and should receive, in addition a tract of land, provisions and stores sufficient for their first two years in the colony. For his part, Hebert agreed to serve without pay as general medical officer of the settlement, to give his other services to the company when needed, and to keep his hands out of the fur trade. Nothing was said about his serving as legal officer of the colony as well; but that task became part of his varied experience. Not long after his arrival at Quebec, Hebert's name appears, with the title of "procureur du Roi", at the foot of a petition sent home by the colonists to the king.

All this looked fair enough, but as matters turned out, Hebert made a poor bargain. The company gave him only half the promised bonus, granted him no title to any land, and for three years insisted upon having all his time for its own service. A man with less determination would have made his way back to France at the earliest opportunity. But Hebert was loyal to Champlain, whom he in no way blamed for his bad treatment. At Champlain's suggestion he took a piece of land above the settlement at Quebec, and without waiting for any formal title-deed began devoting all his spare hours to the task of getting it cleared and cultivated. His small tract comprised only about a dozen arpents on the heights above the village; and as he had no one to help him the work of clearing it moved slowly. Trees had to be felled and cut up, the stumps burned and removed, stones gathered into piles, and every foot of soil upturned by hand with a spade. There were no ploughs in the colony at this time. or Oxen, no horses at Quebec. It was some years later that farm implements were imported.

Nevertheless, Hebert was able by hard work to get the entire twelve arpents into cultivable shape within four or five years. A house had been built chiefly by the labor of himself. It was a stone house, about twenty feet by forty in size, a one-story affair, regarded as one of the most comfortable abodes in the colony. The attractions of this home, and especially the hospitality of Madame Hebert and her daughters, are more than once mentioned in the annals of the settlement. It was the first dwelling to be erected on the plateau above the village.

In 1623 the authorities were moved to grant him the honor of rank as a seigneur, and the first title-deed conveying a grant of land en seigneurie was issued to him on February 4 of that year. The deed bore the signature of the Duc de Montmorenci, titular viceroy of New France. Three years later a further deed, confirming Hebert's rights and title, and conveying to him an additional tract of land on the St Charles river, was issued to him by the succeeding viceroy, Henri de Levy, Duc de Ventadour.
The preamble of this document recounts the services of the new seigneur. "Having left his relatives and friends to help establish a colony of Christian people in lands which are deprived of the knowledge of God, not being enlightened by His holy light," the document proceeds, "he has by his painful labors and industry cleared lands, fenced them, and erected buildings for himself, his family and his cattle. to encourage those who may hereafter desire to inhabit and develop the said country of Canada" the land held by Hebert, together with an additional square league on the shore of the St Charles, is given to him "to have and to hold in fief noble for ever," subject to such charges and conditions as might be later imposed by official decree.

Hebert died in 1627. Little as we know about his life, the clerical chroniclers tell us a good deal about his death, which proves that he must have had all the externals of piety. At the time of Hebert's death Quebec was still a struggling hamlet of sixty-five souls, two-thirds of whom were women and children unable to till the fields. Hebert certainly did his share. His daughters married in the colony and had large families. By these marriages a close alliance was formed with the Couillards and other prominent families of the colony's earliest days.
Attached to this monument is a bronze plaque inscribed "Les Premiers Colons De Quebec" with about 90 names of which are 14 ancestors of Anthony Moses Genereau alias Jim Cummings.
These settlers came to Kebec with Champlain, some were shipped back to France by the Kirk bothers in 1627, others remained under English rule until the treaty March 1632 when Kebec and Arcadia was returned to France. Champlain returned in May 23 1633 with three ships loaded with supplies, and the settlement once again started to grow.
Jim Cummings, is not only full blooded French but could boast that he is a decedent of the very first European to settle in New France, He has many cousins that can do the same but his line is documented.
How I wish I could spend a few moments with my grandmother "Maggie" she was loyal to her fathers wishes to keep secret his change of name due to a unfortunate incident, but a family with this genealogy can not be denied to those coming after us. All of "maggie's" family on her fathers side both Paternal and Maternal have been traced for each generation back to 1600's in France, and in some cases beyond the middle ages.

Saturday, June 13, 2009

Sgt. Jean Sicard-de-Carufel, Lord Farguette

Moses Genereaux alias Jim Cummings- wonder if Jim knew that his mother, Marie Dupuis Genereaux's, 4th great grandfather held all these titles and came from a Nobel family in France.
Jean-Baptiste Sicard de Carufel, was born 1665 at St Jacques, Castres, Languedoc, France the son of Pierre Sicard-de-Carufel and Marie de Farques. [due to the ordinance revising titles of Nobility in France 1664 to 1667, Pierre Sicard appeared before Montpellier tribunal on 5 Sep 1669. He and his descendants were declared Nobles also mentioning the fief of Carufel]
At the age of 19 Jean-Baptiste Sicard de Carufel joined the French Marine troops under the command of Captain [Ecuyer] Francois-Marie-Renaud d'Avesne des Meloizes. The company, recruited by the new Gov. Jacques-Rene Brisay de Denonville, made part of the 500 man detachment from port of LaRochelle , and arrived in Quebec 1 Aug 1685.

Jean was Huguenot, or one of the many Albigeois groups that suffered religious persecution for mention is made in the Notr-Dame de Quebec church dated 20 Jan 1686 in which the young Nobleman renounced his faith according to the "Acte d'Abjuration" Jean Sicard native of parish St Jacques, city of Castres d'Albigeois, in Haut-Languedoc, Sargent in Reg. of Renaud d'Avesnes "recants from the pretended reformed religion", before Bishop of Quebec.
The Catholic religion had tremendous power and would not allow any non catholic to set foot in New France soil.
A marriage contract was prepared and signed 25 Nov 1694 states Jean was sergeant in Michael Leneuf Company, two days later [dispensation of bans granted, due to his military ties permission granted by Governor general] Sergeant Jean Sicard de Carufel, married Genevieve, dau of Jacques Ratte and Anne Martin [grand-daughter of Abraham Martin dit l'Ecossais, a royal pilot[not ww11, pilot of boat]
Jean returned to Nouvelle France and on 18 March 1704 after living 10 years in Saint-Pierre d'Orleans, sold his property to his brother in law Pierre Ratte. on 21 April 1705 Governor, Marquis Phillippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, officially granted Lord Jean Sicard the fief de Carufel, in a "Acte de concesson.
France was still supporting the "Seigneurial Regime" so Jean applied for and received a plot of land. Seigneurs were duty-bound to promote and colonize their grant by providing immigrants with favorable conditions for settlement and agriculture development. Jean Sicard de Lord of Carufel began to establish his property. Everything was stacked against him, the timing could not have been worse. Everyone feared the Iroquois Indians, although a peace treaty signed four years earlier in 1701 at Montreal, between the Mohawks and the French, was in effect, the reputation of the Indians made the immigrants fearful of moving far from the St Lawrence river. Jeans, Maskinonge fief was up the Maskinonge river some distance.
In 1720, with his sons he traveled to the site and built a sixteen ft square house on a 3 acre cleared site, enclosed by a sturdy palisades. Still no one was rushing in to take up his offers.
To be successful a Seigneur, had to develop enough sites for 25 to 30 settlers, then provide all the services they needed that he could receive revenue from rent of land and percentage of everything else they produced, plus a return for services of the mills etc that he would provide.
Much like the feudal system of Europe or the mill town in the industrial age.
Since Jeans maintenance cost were surpassing his income he remained active in his military career as Ensign of the troops of the colony.
27 Jan 1737 Jean made his will , died August 1743 at age of 77

Jean bore arms: "de geules, au paon rouant d"or, au chef cousu d'azur charg de trois etoiles d'argent" registered to the St Maurice de Coudols family.

Sgt. Jean Sicard-de-Carufel, Lord Farguette, family genealogy can be traced for many generation to Charlemagne, Kings and leaders of ancient times, these charts are just to large to include in this blog. Jean is not the only Nobel family included in Jims ancestors but he probably is the best recorded one. He put everything on the line to try and develop a title and life style in the wilds of New France but his timing was off.

Friday, June 12, 2009

Christie Taillon Cummings interview 1968

Christie Taillon, born 8 Nov 1891, Williamstown, Ontario, Canada married 1909 at Cornwall, Ontario, Canada to John Cummings. rather than my trying to tell you about her life, an interview that she gave Jane Benham 26 Sep 1968 might be interesting for you to read. Christie Taillon Cummings lived on St Ann St. in St Regis Falls,N.Y. was a stanch member of the Holiness Church, where she often played the pump organ and piano. John and Christie's children were, Aretta [Brabon],Kenneth, Shirley [Phelps], and Sheldon. plus a son Wessley who had passed away at age 15 , from a infection from a horse bite.

From her interview: Christie Cummings came to St Regis Falls in 1902 with her mother and stepfather Mr Belmore. She was 10 years old at the time. Her family had previously lived in Williamstown, Ontario, about 25 miles below Cornwall. The family lived outside of St Regis Falls in what was later John Dora.s house. Mr Belmore worked in the lumber camps and took what other jobs he could find to support the family. Henry Ashlaw hired her mother to cook in his lumber camp four miles from Santa Clara, from then on, she and the children spent most of their time in the camps. Christie lived in the woods until she was 15. She got up at 3:30 on winter mornings to help her mother by paring potatoes, setting and waiting tables, making beds, and sweeping floors.
Meals in the lumber camp usually consisted of salt pork, baked beans and potatoes. These were often warmed over from one meal to the next. Cisco salt fish were purchased in barrels, and barrels of blackstrap molasses and light Caro syrup were also used. Christie's mother was a good cook, usually made breads, cakes and pies every day.
The men who lived in the camps also got up at 3:30 a.m. to hitch up their horses and sleds to draw logs to the river for the spring drives.
The bunks where the men slept were made of poles placed crosswise and covered with straw. Bedbugs and lice were everywhere. The cook's quarters were separate and were kept in cleaner condition. The only recreation time the men had was the times they went to town and came back drunk.
About the first of March each year the lumbermen broke camp and drove the logs down river to the mills. Christie never saw a river drive but her husband later worked on them.She did remember seeing the logs in the river before the drives began, When camp was broken, Christie and her family went home for a time. She remembered that the horses wallowed in the snow and the wagon almost tipped over, as the road out of the woods was so bumpy. In May they returned to camp and the lumbermen started over again. During the summer, the men cut and peeled pulp and piled it on skid-ways. The skid-way was a pile of logs where two men rolled other logs up. They put oil on their bodies in an attempt to keep the flies and mosquitoes away.
The last camp Christie's mother cooked at was owned by Jack Fraser. Harry Nelson was the foreman. that was 54 years ago [in 1968]. Christie never worked that camp, but said her mother had two chore boys--one inside and one out. The inside boy was Mose Martin from Malone.
She didn't know how many men were in the camp, but her mother used a 25 pound sack of flour a day to cook for them. Christie's husband John was a filer [sharpened axes and saws]. There were two blacksmiths: Dennis Gokey, and her father in law Jim Cummings.
Once Christie and her brother Lewis, who was four years younger went to visit their older sister who was married and still lived in Williamstown. Their mother bought them new cloths and shoes at a store in town. However when they had to walk along the tote road to Santa Clara to catch the morning train to Cornwall, they wore their old shoes and carried the new ones so they wouldn't be ruined. At the bridge in Santa Clara, they changed their shoes and put their old ones under a log. The next week when they returned, they went to the log, changed their shoes again and returned to camp.
When Christie was about 11 years old, she stayed with her sister for about a year, The sister lived on a farm and Christie had a good time, although she worked hard every day with haying and drawing out loads of manure.
There was usually no special celebration on Christmas or Thanksgiving when the family was in the woods, they sometimes didn't come out for almost a year. Special food was prepared for Christmas dinner, but there were no gifts.
The biggest celebration was usually the Fourth of July when a large parade and dinner was held in St Regis Falls. A dance pavilion was set up at the railroad depot where the fire station is now, and there were clowns and other entertainment. Everyone dressed up and enjoyed the good times. A number of businesses existed in the town at that time. A pulp mill up the river ran only during the summer after the soring river drives. The train crossed the river near it at Block bridge where people fished for bull heads. The Brooklyn Cooperage mill was across the river from the depot and was open all year. There was also a chair factory run by Mr Babcock and a mica factory. Hotels were run by Jim Farmer, Sam McLeod, and a Mr Bishop. The Waverly House was build by W.T.O'Neil. Two more hotels were on Tannery street, now river Street.One of these was owned by Mr Campbell. At one time, there was two theaters, run by Bill Deshaw and Fred Aldrich. A drug store was owned by Joe Wardner, Mr Tryon had a grocery store in the building where the present Rockhill store is. This was later taken over by Paul LeMeiux. John Prue ran a store and butcher shop there too. Cal Aldrich's dry good store was located where Larry Rivers appliance store is now. Next door where Sonny Rivers is now, George Butler had a shore repair and harness shop. Oren Wilson owned a grocery store where the laundry mat is and was later taken over by Ernie Tripeny. Clate Southworth owned the other grocery store across the river. Dr Wardner, brother of Joe Wardner, had his office above the Tryon store. Another doctor in town during that time was Dr Moody. A town newspaper, the Adirondack News was published by R. A. Rowell.ea had only a few telephones then, best way to get in touch with anyone any distance away was through the mail, but roads were often closed with snow in the winter, and sometimes the mailman could not get through for days. In 1908, Christie was married to John Cummings. John usually worked in the woods all winter, and Christie stayed home to take care of her family. The Cummings lived in the country until 1922 when they moved to the present home on St Ann Street. The older children started school in a country school on the Port Kent Road.
Although the Cummings were not farmers, they kept a cow, horse, pigs, chickens, and a garden-enough to keep them busy.Christie did her laundry with a scrub board and carried her own wood and water when John wasn't home. She built her own fires in the mornings and heated water in a pan on the stove for dishes. A table held the water pail and wash dish. The floors were made of wide knotty boards, and scrubbing them was a difficult job. Christie said all her neighbors lived and worked in this same rough way. They weren't able to push buttons and pull switches to get their work done. Everything had to be carried in and carried back out when they were done with it. It bothers her now when she hears people complain about the amount of work they have to do, for she doesn't feel they really know what work really is.

I did not change anything, there are facts here that you will not find in any books written about the area.
Christie lived about a year and a half after this interview dying 26 Mar 1970, she had a great memory and certainly lived through a wonderful period when women especially were able to get away from the difficult labor of keeping up a home-how upset we are when the dish washer fails or the TV will not come in. Think about the extra labor you are missing when you buy that individual wrapped boned chicken breast. Christie would have had to kill it, pull the feathers, sing it, boil some water on the wood stove, clean out the inside and then cut it up. So much for the good old days

Friday, June 5, 2009

Marie Bouart Filles du Roi or Kings Daughters

Marie Bouart, was born Feb 1649 at St-Savien, Poitus, Vienne, France. the daughter of Francois Bouart and Jeanne Billauge. She was my Grt. Grandfather Moses Genereau alias Jim Cummings. 6th Grt Grandmother. Her first husband was Jacques Antrade, whom she married 16 Aug 1668 with whom she had one child, he was born 19 Apr 1643 at St Andre, Nioit, Poitiers, Poitou, France and died 1671.
Then she married "Grampa" Francois, dit Le Bourguigon & Laplante, [contract Mar 3, 1672], he was born abt 1633, at St-Panttaleon, [Saone-et-Loire], Autun, Bourgoene, France. a soldier in "Carignan-Salieres Regiment. with whom she had 9 children, living in St Francois-Xavier, Batiscan, Champlain Co., Quebec. He died 20 Mar. 1688. Then she married third husband Jean Boismene on 6 Feb 1689.

King Louis Xiv was doing his best to make a success of the settlements in New France, he had made it attractive to the soldiers of the Carignan-Salieres Regiment, to stay in this New France by giving them land, live stock and equipment plus a purse if they would stay and develop the area.
He rounded up some 852 eligible females ranging in age from 13 to 40, from various places in France. 238 from Paris, 175 from Bougs, 46 Rouen, 35 LaRochelle, and other small villages, as well as 3 from other countries. 414 of these were from various Orphanages, the rest were mostly farm girls, used to hard work , with a few from better families.
This was not a new idea it had been done by the English in settling Virginia and the Spanish in the Carribian.
the girls arrived in New France in small groups as few as 10 some years and upwards of 170 in other years. The girls were carefully picked by agents of the crown for their good qualities, physical condition [until beast of burden could be raised the wives would have to pull the plow, while the husband pushed with one hand and carried a ready musket in the other] looks and education did not seem to be a factor.
The King bore the cost, amounting to about 100 livres per girl, broken down to ten for personal moving expenses, 30 for clothing and 60 to cover the passage to New France. In addition the girls received a small hope chest, one coiffe [bonnet], taffeta handkerchief, pair stockings, pair gloves, ribbon, four shoelaces, white thread, 100 needles, 1,000 pins, a comb, pair of scissors, two knives, two Livres in cash. upon arrival, each girl was to receive suitable clothing and some provisions.
All the girls arrived in Quebec, were the men had the first choice, then some were sent to Montreal and Trois River. Some of these girls married several times, as the males were often killed in skirmishes with the Mohawk Indians.
Upon marriage the girl received a Dowry from the King 50 Livres if she married a soldier, or "habitant" and 100 Livres if she marries an officer. in addition to start them off each couple was given, pair of chickens and pigs, an Ox, a cow, and two barrels of salted meat. With an incentive to have large families, a pension of 300 Livres was granted to family with 10 children, rising to 400 Livres for 12 children and more for even larger families.
The girls were not enslaved, they had the choice to regect a man if she so desired. Once married divorce was near impossible, unless her husband beat her with a stick larger in diameter than his wrist, in such case she could be granted a divorce.
The plan worked from 1663 to 1673 852 Filles du Roi, arrived in New France and in the year 1671 nearly 700 children were born to these girls. In 1663 about 2,500 colonist lived in New France, Sept 1673 was last shipment and the program ended. The population had increased to 6,700

Maria was not the only "Filles du Roi" that we can trace the ancestry of Jim Cummings to
there are at least 6 more. Today thousands of Canadians and Americans can trace there ancestry to these ladies.
Chemereau, Marguerite m Piet, Jean, dit Trempe, 1669 0or 1670
Herbert, Marie-Madeleine, m Brosseau, Denis, contract Oct 15, 1670
Lecoutre, Louise, m Crevier, Nicolas, abt 1665
Lemaire, Marie, m Ratel, Pierre, Dec 28, 1669
Leroux, Marie, m 1 Enaud, Jacques, dit Canada, bef 1673 m2 Borneuf, Pierre, 1691
Pillat, Catherine, m 1 Charron, Pierre, dit Ducharime, Oct 19,1665
m 2 Brisson, Sebastion, dit Lancoche, Jan 13, 1709

Thursday, June 4, 2009

Francois Dessureau Soldier Carignan-Salieres Rgt

My great grandfather Moses Genereaux alias Jim Cummings, 6th great grandfather was Francois Dessureau dit Le Bourguignon, & Lapante. He was born about 1633 son of Jean Dessureault and Anne Poraux, in Bourgogne, France His destiny laid beyond the ocean in a new continent. he enlisted in the foot soldier Company Poitou, but would be assigned to Monteil Company. He served for a few months when rumors started about being shipped to New France.
Rather mixed emotions it was supposed to be a wild country and months away by ship. With little time to think about it his company was merged in the famous Carignan-Saliers Regiment. Under the command of Lt. General Alexander de Prouvill, Sieur De Tracy.

King Louis the XIV in the hope he could defeat the Mohawks and stabilize the new colonies was sending this crack regiment to New France. Francois, was issued a uniform and loaded on the 800 ton ship Le Breze, out of La Guadeloupe, on 25 Apr 1665, they finally arrived in Quebec, 30 Jun 1665, little over two months. His was the second ship of 7 carrying the regiment of 1000 soldiers, at this time there was only about 2000 inhabitants of New France. When they landed at Quebec, they where temporally quartered in the homes of the families, while they built a series of forts on the Richelieu river. These feared Mohawks in small bands kept them under attack. Col Chazy, nephew of Marques Tracy, was attacked and killed while building the fort on the river we now call Chazy.
Lt. Gen. Sieur De Tracy Commander and chief of the Carignan-Salieres decided that on 9 Jan 1666 In the dead of winter, he would go on the offensive and attack the Mohawks. with 300 veteran and 200 volunteers they set out. each man with his summer uniform, with 35 to 50 pound back pack, with food, leather shoes, they were issued snowshoes which they had never seen before, probably bear paws which are very hard to get used to. It was a Indian summer day when they left, but this turned into sub zero stormy weather.
They had a canoe trip down the Richelieu river to Lake Champlain then a carry to Lake George then a struggle on foot, waist deep snow, food frozen, heavy packs and a group of Indian guides that were lost, with several foot of snow they could not find the trails. An advanced party was attacked by the Mohawks who killed several and wounded many more. The Mohawks went at once to Schenectady stockade and showed the Dutch five French heads they had on spears and told them about the snowshoes coming.
The French followed the Indians tracks and in several hours came stumbling out of the forest at Schenectady on 17 Feb. 1666. thirty nine days after they started They were lucky, had they emerged a few miles to the west, the Mohawks would have no doubt killed them all. Being frozen, starving, many without firearms and equipment. The Dutch took them in there homes, feed them and tended there needs. The year before the English had taken over New York, so they sent for Arent Van Corlear, commander at Albany who came at once with more provisions, and a question for Gov. Courcelles, the officer in charge, why were the French this deep into English territory. The French officer said they were going to punish the Mohawks and would continue on that mission, when they left next day they started in westerly direction toward the Mohawk Castile's but once out of site of the stockade they turned north and went directly to Lake George, and home.
During the next few months the Mohawks continued to harass the outlaying French forts.
July, Captain de Sorel, with party of 200 soldiers and volunteers with 80 Algonquins parlayed with the Mohawks who surrendered several French captives .
In August of 1666 a grand Council was held at Quebec and under flag of truce the Mohawk chieftains attended. During the meeting the Marque De Tracy sponsored a dinner after which bragging began, Ag-Ari-Ata a Mohawk chief stood up raised his right arm and said "this is the hand that split the blond Col Chazy's head. De Tracy had him seized and the next day he hung him in front of the other Mohawk party. Needless to say the peace meeting was over and another blow for the hatred the Mohawks had for the French.
In October 1666, Marques Tracy gave the order for 700 regulars 400 Canadians, 100 Algonquins and Hurons, along with 2 field cannon to embark on a surprise attack on the Mohawk castles along the Mohawk River. They started in canoes down the Richelieu River to Lake Champlain, across the carry to Lake George, from there the Indian trail that came out near the noses in the Mohawk valley. Of course the Mohawks were following them as soon as they left Lake Champlain. As they got nearer the valley the Mohawks gave the alarm and everyone moved there belongings to other castles. These castles were Palisaded enclosure made of 6 inch poles about 10 to 12 ft high enclosing a area were they built, from saplings covered with Elm bark several long houses ranging from 40 to 300 ft in length. Since they were only armed with bow and arrows plus the few muskets they had found during the winter march to Schenectady, Marques Tracy had little use for the cannon and great number of soldiers. They marched to 4 other castles and found no one so they burned everything and returned to Quebec after this very successful campaign.
The Mohawks were busy in the valley, a war with the Mohican's which established the command of the valley for the Mohawks. The 5 Castles were moved westward and rebuilt, with the help from the Dutch and English who furnished grain and food to replace what had been burned. They also furnished metal tools for the Mohawks to rebuild. This left the French alone for 1667. The Cariganan-Salieres Regiment was scheduled to go back to France. King Louis Xiv offered a bonus of Land, cattle and purse for any soldier staying in New France, about 400 including My ancestor Francois stayed, married but that is another story, Marie Bouart, born Feb 1649 in St Savien, Poitus, Vienna, France. They were married 3 Mar 1672. in Batiscan, Champlain Co., Quebec.
The parents of 9 children. Francois, died 20 Mar 1688, in Batiscan, Champlain, Co., Quebec.

Our Ancestor Moses Genereaux alias Jim Cumming , had several other ancestors who came with the "regiment" in 1665 including: Pierre Enrud Dit Canada , Francues Dit Lamantagne Banliac,
Pierre dit Beaulieu Hudon, and no doubt many others.
The photo of the oil painting of Louis the Xiv has hung in my home since the 1970's long before I knew about the French connection.
The French soldiers did there part but one gets the feeling those in command made some rather bad decisions, this has been obvious in many of the wars that would follow.